Two key events in suffrage history parallel important moments in Native history. In 1890, national suffrage organizations reunited to form the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) during the pinnacle of federal assimilation policies that aimed to destroy the cultural and political structures of Indigenous nations and to assimilate them into the citizenry of the United States. The year 1920 fell amid what is often called the nadir of Native history, characterized by poverty, disease, massive land dispossession, and little to no political power, all of which were the direct result of federal policies. These concurrent developments are rarely discussed in tandem, but some Indigenous feminists engaged in debates over Indian citizenship and voting rights and were in conversation with mainstream suffragists. While the Nineteenth Amendment did not enfranchise the roughly one-third of all Native adults who were not US citizens in 1920, Indigenous feminists loudly and directly called upon newly enfranchised white women to address “the Indian situation as it is today” upon ratification.